14 February 2007 Full-pupil versus divided-pupil confocal line-scanners for reflectance imaging of human skin in vivo
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Abstract
A full-pupil confocal line-scanning microscope is under development for imaging human skin in vivo in reflectance. The new design potentially offers an alternative to current point- and line-scanners that may simplify the optics, electronics and mechanics, and lead to simpler and smaller confocal microscopes. With a combination of a cylindrical lens and an objective lens, the line-scanner creates a focused line of laser light in the object plane within tissue. An oscillating galvanometric mirror scans the focused line transverse to its axis. The backscattered light from the tissue is de-scanned and focused onto a linear CMOS detector array. Preliminary measurements of the axial line-spread function, with a 30x, 0.9-NA water immersion objective lens and illumination wavelength of 633 nm, determined the optical sectioning to be 10 μm. The new design is simple, requiring only eight optical components. However, the disadvantage is non-confocality in one dimension that results in 20% weaker sectioning than with a point-scanner, and reduced contrast in scattering tissue. The images of standard reflective targets such as a mirror and grating as well as dermis-like scattering target such as paper offer a preliminary glimpse into the performance of the line-scanner. A similar alternative design is the divided-pupil (theta) line-scanner, which provides 50% weaker sectioning than with a point scanner, but better contrast and less speckle due to the theta configuration. Such line scanners may prove useful for routine imaging of humans in clinical settings.
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Dan Gareau, Sanjeewa Abeytunge, Milind Rajadhyaksha, "Full-pupil versus divided-pupil confocal line-scanners for reflectance imaging of human skin in vivo", Proc. SPIE 6443, Three-Dimensional and Multidimensional Microscopy: Image Acquisition and Processing XIV, 64430X (14 February 2007); doi: 10.1117/12.700563; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.700563
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