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7 March 2007 Production of 3D photonic components with ultrafast micromachining
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Infrared, femtosecond laser pulses are ideal for the fabrication of 3D structures in transparent media. Due to the low absorption cross-section, 2 or more photons are necessary for absorption. This multi-photon effect limits the affected volume to the focal area allowing for sharp features on the order of the wavelength of light. One possible multi-photon reaction is the photo-destruction (ablation, decomposition, etc.) or photo-polymerization of materials. Using these techniques, 3D photonic components can be realized. A photonic band gap template has been created with a monodisperse polystyrene (PS) spheres (diameter ~ 624 nm). We have used ultrafast laser pulses to remove spheres (introduce defined defects) at the surface to gain a fuller understanding of the laser-material interaction. To optimally focus inside the bulk, an index matching material must be infiltrated. By using a photosensitive material, two-photon polymerization can be used to harden the material surrounding the spheres and insert defects inside the bulk. With proper placement of defects, 3D photonic components, i.e., waveguides, splitters, and filters, can be created.
© (2007) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.
M. Boyle, A. Neumeister, R. Kiyan, C. Reinhardt, U. Stute, B. Chichkov, Wendel Wohlleben, and R. J. Leyrer "Production of 3D photonic components with ultrafast micromachining", Proc. SPIE 6462, Micromachining Technology for Micro-Optics and Nano-Optics V and Microfabrication Process Technology XII, 646212 (7 March 2007);

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