6 February 2007 Gain eigenvalue calculations for antiguided and ARROW VCSELs
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We compare the threshold gain and modal discrimination of a range of large aperture VCSELs intended for high-power single-mode operation. The threshold gain is calculated using a gain eigenvalue solver that enforces the threshold condition of the mode (gain = loss). In this way, gain guiding is included automatically. We find that confining the gain to a smaller area than the mode results in excellent threshold gain and modal discrimination, due to the large difference in modal overlap factors between the fundamental and the second order mode.
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Benjamin Klein, "Gain eigenvalue calculations for antiguided and ARROW VCSELs", Proc. SPIE 6468, Physics and Simulation of Optoelectronic Devices XV, 64680G (6 February 2007); doi: 10.1117/12.701284; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.701284

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