7 February 2007 Investigation of optical far-field stability in long-wavelength VCSELs: thermal and carrier-induced effects
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A stable far-field and single-mode performance is of great interest for many applications in sensing or communications. In this contribution an analysis of the far-field stability versus current and temperature is performed for a long-wavelength vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) emitting around 1310 nm. Furthermore, the single-mode stability is investigated by means of a technology computer aided design (TCAD) tool. The electro-opto-thermal multi-dimensional simulations are fully-coupled and use microscopic models. The optical modes are obtained by solving the vectorial Helmholtz equation, using a finite element approach. The impact of temperature, free carrier absorption and gain on the refractive index is accounted for. The far-field is calculated using Green's functions. The investigated VCSEL features an InP-based cavity with multiple quantum wells and a tunnel junction as well as wafer-fused AlGaAs/GaAs distributed Bragg reflectors. The comparison of simulated and measured L-I, V-I characteristics and far-field as well as the wavelength-shift show good agreement for different ambient temperatures as well as driving current values. The simulations reveal the impact of temperature, gain and carrier effects on the far-field. The design of optical guiding structures (such as oxides or tunnel junctions) and its impact on the far-field behaviour over ambient temperature and bias current is discussed.
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Alexandra Bäcker, Alexandra Bäcker, Rafael Santschi, Rafael Santschi, Stefan Odermatt, Stefan Odermatt, Friedhard Römer, Friedhard Römer, Michael Pfeiffer, Michael Pfeiffer, Paul Royo, Paul Royo, Vladimir Iakovlev, Vladimir Iakovlev, Alexei Syrbu, Alexei Syrbu, Andrei Caliman, Andrei Caliman, Alexandru Mereuta, Alexandru Mereuta, Eli Kapon, Eli Kapon, Bernd Witzigmann, Bernd Witzigmann, } "Investigation of optical far-field stability in long-wavelength VCSELs: thermal and carrier-induced effects", Proc. SPIE 6468, Physics and Simulation of Optoelectronic Devices XV, 64680H (7 February 2007); doi: 10.1117/12.699842; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.699842

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