1 February 2007 High-speed LiNbO3 modulator for W-band millimeter-wave detection
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Proceedings Volume 6472, Terahertz and Gigahertz Electronics and Photonics VI; 64720M (2007); doi: 10.1117/12.701415
Event: Integrated Optoelectronic Devices 2007, 2007, San Jose, California, United States
Abstract
We report the design, fabrication, and characterization of high-speed LiNbO3 modulator for the millimeter-wave (MMW) detection system at W band covering atmospheric window at 94 GHz. The LiNbO3 modulator is used to convert the collected MMW power into optical frequency, and hence predominantly determines the system sensitivity. The high sensitivity of detection requires the modulator a broad-band response and a small driving voltage. The ridged traveling-wave structure has been used in the modulator design. The effects of velocity matching, impedance matching, and MMW attenuations in this structure on the device's MMW conversion efficiency are investigated. A numerical model has developed to optimize the device geometric parameters and the fabrication processes. The fabricated modulator achieved the 3-dB optical bandwidth of 67 GHz and the conversion efficiency of ~0.7 W-1 at 94 GHz. The detection pixel based on it has shown a high sensitivity with a noise equivalent temperature difference of ~6 K at a refreshing rate of 30 Hz.
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C. J. Huang, C. A. Schuetz, R. Shireen, S. Shi, D. W. Prather, "High-speed LiNbO3 modulator for W-band millimeter-wave detection", Proc. SPIE 6472, Terahertz and Gigahertz Electronics and Photonics VI, 64720M (1 February 2007); doi: 10.1117/12.701415; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.701415
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KEYWORDS
Modulators

Extremely high frequency

Sensors

Electrodes

Modulation

Imaging systems

Photodetectors

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