20 February 2007 Identification of in-field defect development in digital image sensors
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Abstract
Although solid-state image sensors are known to develop defects in the field, little information is available about the nature, quantity or development rate of these defects. We report on and algorithm and calibration tests, which confirmed the existence of significant quantities of in-field defects in 4 out of 5 high-end digital cameras. Standard hot pixels were identified in all 4 cameras. Stuck hot pixels, which have not been described previously, were identified in 2 cameras. Previously, hot-pixels were thought to have no impact at short exposure durations, but the large offset of stuck hot pixels will degrade almost any image and cannot be ignored. Fully-stuck and abnormal sensitivity defects were not found. Spatial investigation found no clustering. We tracked hot pixel growth over the lifetime of one camera, using only normal photographs. We show that defects develop continually over the lifetime of the sensor, starting within several months of first use, and do not heal over time. Our success in tracing the history of each defect confirms the feasibility of using automatic defect identification to analyze defect response and growth characteristics in a multitude of cameras already in the field, without performing additional experiments or requiring physical access to the cameras.
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Jozsef Dudas, Linda M. Wu, Cory Jung, Glenn H. Chapman, Zahava Koren, Israel Koren, "Identification of in-field defect development in digital image sensors", Proc. SPIE 6502, Digital Photography III, 65020Y (20 February 2007); doi: 10.1117/12.704563; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.704563
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