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27 February 2007 Forensics for flatbed scanners
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Abstract
Within this article, we investigate possibilities for identifying the origin of images acquired with flatbed scanners. A current method for the identification of digital cameras takes advantage of image sensor noise, strictly speaking, the spatial noise. Since flatbed scanners and digital cameras use similar technologies, the utilization of image sensor noise for identifying the origin of scanned images seems to be possible. As characterization of flatbed scanner noise, we considered array reference patterns and sensor line reference patterns. However, there are particularities of flatbed scanners which we expect to influence the identification. This was confirmed by extensive tests: Identification was possible to a certain degree, but less reliable than digital camera identification. In additional tests, we simulated the influence of flatfielding and down scaling as examples for such particularities of flatbed scanners on digital camera identification. One can conclude from the results achieved so far that identifying flatbed scanners is possible. However, since the analyzed methods are not able to determine the image origin in all cases, further investigations are necessary.
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Thomas Gloe, Elke Franz, and Antje Winkler "Forensics for flatbed scanners", Proc. SPIE 6505, Security, Steganography, and Watermarking of Multimedia Contents IX, 65051I (27 February 2007); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.704165
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