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3 April 2007 Six degree-of-freedom haptic rendering for the surgical incision training
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In surgical incision, it is known that the surgeons control surgical knives by feeling of its reaction force, therefore it is necessary to render realistic haptic for development of the surgical incision training system. In our previous paper, we reported that the surgical incision training system used three translational degree-of-freedom (3-DOF) haptic rendering without consideration of rotational forces, distribution of hardness and viscosity of tissue. In this paper, we propose 6-DOF haptic rendering model for development of incision training system with three translational and rotational forces considered hardness and velocity. In this model, it is possible to render the cut, friction and clamping force acting on a surgical knife and those forces can be displayed on the 6-DOF haptic interface device in real time. It is shown the effectiveness of 6-DOF rendering model in comparison with 3-DOF by subjective rating experiment.
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Yasuhiro Kawaguchi, Toshiya Nakaguchi, Norimichi Tsumura, and Yoichi Miyake "Six degree-of-freedom haptic rendering for the surgical incision training", Proc. SPIE 6509, Medical Imaging 2007: Visualization and Image-Guided Procedures, 65092R (3 April 2007);

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