2 April 2007 Defectivity reduction studies for ArF immersion lithography
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Immersion lithography is widely expected to meet the manufacturing requirements of future device nodes. A critical development in immersion lithography has been the construction of a defect-free process. Two years ago, the authors evaluated the impact of water droplets made experimentally on exposed resist films and /or topcoat. (1) The results showed that the marks of drying water droplet called watermarks became pattern defects with T-top profile. In the case that water droplets were removed by drying them, formation of the defects was prevented. Post-exposure rinse process to remove water droplets also prevented formation of the defects. In the present work, the authors evaluated the effect of pre- and post-exposure rinse processes on hp 55nm line and space pattern with Spin Rinse Process Station (SRS) and Post Immersion Rinse Process Station (PIR) modules on an inline lithography cluster with the Tokyo Electron Ltd. CLEAN TRACKTM LITHIUS TM i+ and ASML TWINSCAN XT:1700Fi , 193nm immersion scanner. It was found that total defectivity is decreased by pre- and post-exposure rinse. In particular, bridge defects and large bridge defects were decreased by pre- and post-exposure rinse. Pre- and post-exposure rinse processes are very effective to reduce the bridge and large bridge defects of immersion lithography.
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Kentaro Matsunaga, Kentaro Matsunaga, Takehiro Kondoh, Takehiro Kondoh, Hirokazu Kato, Hirokazu Kato, Yuuji Kobayashi, Yuuji Kobayashi, Kei Hayasaki, Kei Hayasaki, Shinichi Ito, Shinichi Ito, Akira Yoshida, Akira Yoshida, Satoru Shimura, Satoru Shimura, Tetsu Kawasaki, Tetsu Kawasaki, Hideharu Kyoda, Hideharu Kyoda, } "Defectivity reduction studies for ArF immersion lithography", Proc. SPIE 6519, Advances in Resist Materials and Processing Technology XXIV, 65191T (2 April 2007); doi: 10.1117/12.711331; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.711331

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