2 April 2007 Development of high-performance multi-layer resist process with hardening treatment
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In the manufacture of devices beyond the 45 nm node, it is important to employ a high-performance multi-layer resist (MLR) process that uses silicon containing ARC (Si-ARC) and spin on carbon (SOC). We examined an additional hardening process of SOC by H2 plasma treatment in order to improve the etching durability of the MLR. The dry etching durability of H2-plasma-hardened SOC film showed a drastic improvement, while the wiggling features of the MLR without H2 treatment observed after SiO2 etching disappeared completely. The hardening mechanism of SOC was analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) with gradient shaving preparation (GSP) and Raman spectrometry. The formation of diamond-like amorphous carbon at a depth of approximately 50 nm was observed and was attributed to the improvement in the dry etching durability. In addition, the MLR stack with hardening has good reflectivity characteristics. The simulated reflectivity at the interface between the bottom of the resist and top surface of the MLR stack with hardening below 0.6% was attained over a wide range of Si-ARC thicknesses and hyper NA (~1.3) regions. The measured refractive indices of the hardened SOC film at 193 nm had a high value at the surface; however, they gradually decreased toward the inner region and finally became the same as those of untreated SOC. This might be the origin of the estimated excellent reflectivity characteristics.
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Yoshiharu Ono, Yoshiharu Ono, Takeo Ishibashi, Takeo Ishibashi, Atsumi Yamaguchi, Atsumi Yamaguchi, Tetsuro Hanawa, Tetsuro Hanawa, Masahiro Tadokoro, Masahiro Tadokoro, Kazunori Yoshikawa, Kazunori Yoshikawa, Kazumasa Yonekura, Kazumasa Yonekura, Keiko Matsuda, Keiko Matsuda, Takeshi Matsunobe, Takeshi Matsunobe, Yasushi Fujii, Yasushi Fujii, Takeshi Tanaka, Takeshi Tanaka, } "Development of high-performance multi-layer resist process with hardening treatment", Proc. SPIE 6519, Advances in Resist Materials and Processing Technology XXIV, 65192O (2 April 2007); doi: 10.1117/12.707615; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.707615

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