27 March 2007 Extending immersion lithography with high-index materials: results of a feasibility study
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Abstract
In this paper we report the status of our feasibility work on high index immersion. The development of high index fluids (n>1.64) and high index glass materials (n>1.9) is reported. Questions answered are related to the design of a high NA optics immersion system for fluid containment and fluid handling, and to the compatibility of the fluid with ArF resist processes. Optical design and manufacturing challenges are related to the use of high index glass materials such as crystalline LuAG or ceramic Spinel. Progress on the material development will be reviewed. Progress on immersion fluids development has been sustained. Second-generation fluids are available from many suppliers. For the practical use of second-generation fluids in immersion scanners, we have evaluated and tested fluid recycling concepts in combination with ArF radiation of the fluids. Results on the stability of the fluid and the fluid glass interface will be reported. Fluid containment with immersion hood structures under the lens has been evaluated and tested for several scan speeds and various fluids. Experimental results on scan speed limitations will be presented. The application part of the feasibility study includes the imaging of 29nm L/S structures on a 2-beam interference printer, fluid/resist interaction testing with pre- and post-soak testing. Immersion defect testing using a fluid misting setup was also carried out. Results of these application-related experiments will be presented and discussed.
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Harry Sewell, Jan Mulkens, Paul Graeupner, Diane McCafferty, Louis Markoya, Sjoerd Donders, Nandasiri Samarakone, Rudiger Duesing, "Extending immersion lithography with high-index materials: results of a feasibility study", Proc. SPIE 6520, Optical Microlithography XX, 65201M (27 March 2007); doi: 10.1117/12.711139; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.711139
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