Translator Disclaimer
27 March 2007 Novel high-throughput micro-optical beam shapers reduce the complexity of macro-optics in hyper-NA illumination systems
Author Affiliations +
Uniform illumination of the mask is a key factor for the lithography process. The requirements of Immersion Lithography make illumination systems even more complex e.g. by adding additional parameters like polarization and improved throughput. Arrays of refractive microoptics are the ideal solution for high transmission homogenizing elements since several tool generations. These arrays can provide very steep intensity profiles (top hat and other profiles), enable lossless polarization control and do not suffer from zero order losses like diffractive elements. Usually refractive microlens arrays are used with macrooptical field lenses in order to illuminate a field very uniformly or with a customized intensity distribution. High numerical apertures create the necessity for aspherical surfaces which leads to significantly higher lens cost especially for the macrooptics. In this paper we present novel microoptical homogenizers which create extremely uniform intensity distributions for high numerical apertures without any field lens or at least only with spherical field lenses. Especially multi-pole off-axis illumination can be improved with less optical components. An important prerequisite for these special types of homogenizers is that LIMO can produce free form surfaces on monolithic arrays larger than 200 mm with high precision and reproducibility. Every lens can be designed individually and can also be shaped asymmetrically. We will present surface test methods and the final UV tests, guaranteeing the performance for the applications. Example data gained with these tests will be shown with regard to: meeting the design parameters, reproducibility over one wafer and reproducibility in large lots. Monolithic elements based on crossed cylindrical lenses provide a fill factor close to 100%. Simulations and measurements prove that microoptic arrays can be produced which provide a uniformity of the homogenized laser light of significantly better than 1% P-V at numerical apertures above 0.35. Refractive microoptic arrays do not change the polarization state of the transmitted light which is an important prerequisite in immersion exposure tools. LIMO homogenizer sets are manufactured from fused silica and Calcium Fluoride thus they are suitable for all DUV wavelengths at highest laser fluxes.
© (2007) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.
T. Bizjak, T. Mitra, and L. Aschke "Novel high-throughput micro-optical beam shapers reduce the complexity of macro-optics in hyper-NA illumination systems", Proc. SPIE 6520, Optical Microlithography XX, 65202X (27 March 2007);


Back to Top