26 March 2007 The causes of horizontal-vertical (H-V) bias in optical lithography: dipole source errors
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Abstract
Horizontal-Vertical (H-V) bias is the systematic difference in linewidth between closely located horizontally and vertically oriented resist features that, other than orientation, should be identical. There are two major causes of H-V bias: astigmatism, which causes an H-V bias that varies through focus, and illumination source errors such as telecentricity error. In this paper, the effects of simple dipole source errors upon H-V bias and placement error through focus are explored through simulation.
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John J. Biafore, John J. Biafore, Chris A. Mack, Chris A. Mack, Stewart A. Robertson, Stewart A. Robertson, Mark D. Smith, Mark D. Smith, Sanjay Kapasi, Sanjay Kapasi, } "The causes of horizontal-vertical (H-V) bias in optical lithography: dipole source errors", Proc. SPIE 6520, Optical Microlithography XX, 65203V (26 March 2007); doi: 10.1117/12.712864; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.712864
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