5 April 2007 Can we overcome the relaxation of ionic polymer-metal composites?
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Currently, there is a major engineering challenge associated with Ionic Polymer-Metal Composites (IPMCs) that needs to be resolved before they can be widely adopted in future engineering markets--relaxation of the IPMC actuator under a DC voltage. In this paper, we rigorously discuss the origin of the relaxation phenomena of IPMCs. Our measured voltammograms and deflection data of IPMCs reveal that the relaxation phenomena of the IPMC actuators are primarily caused by the overpotential of surface electrodes. The overpotential values of ca. +1 V were clearly noted in many IPMC samples. We believe that the relaxation of IPMCs originate from the platinum oxide formation during actuation-a key surface reaction. The IPMC solvated with 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([bmim] [PF6]) showed a large bending, but there was no relaxation during actuation because there was no platinum oxide formation.
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Doyeon Kim, Doyeon Kim, Kwang J. Kim, Kwang J. Kim, "Can we overcome the relaxation of ionic polymer-metal composites?", Proc. SPIE 6524, Electroactive Polymer Actuators and Devices (EAPAD) 2007, 65240A (5 April 2007); doi: 10.1117/12.715365; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.715365

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