27 April 2007 Smart vortex generator transformed by change in ambient temperature and aerodynamic force
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A Smart Vortex Generator (SVG) concept has been proposed, where the SVG is autonomously transformed between an upright vortex-generating position in take-off and landing and a flat drag-reducing position in a cruise. This SVG is made of a Shape Memory Alloy (SMA), which is in the austenite phase and memorizes the upright position at high temperatures of the take-off and landing. At low temperatures during ascent the SVG is transformed into a martensite phase, and it lies flat against a base structure due to external or/and internal forces. In this paper, we examine whether the SVG can be transformed into the drag-reducing position by an aerodynamic force. To this end, numerical simulations are carried out with a simple line element model. The aerodynamic force applied on the SVG is calculated by a commercial CFD program. Result reveals that this SVG can be transformed from the upright vortex-generating position into the drag-reducing position by just an airplane climbing, and vice versa, if the SMA applied to the SVG has the two-way shape memory effect. If the SMA has the one-way shape memory effect, it is necessary to reduce the stiffness of the SVG or/and use a counter spring.
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Tadashige Ikeda, Tadashige Ikeda, Shinya Masuda, Shinya Masuda, Tetsuhiko Ueda, Tetsuhiko Ueda, } "Smart vortex generator transformed by change in ambient temperature and aerodynamic force", Proc. SPIE 6525, Active and Passive Smart Structures and Integrated Systems 2007, 65251L (27 April 2007); doi: 10.1117/12.715097; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.715097

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