27 April 2007 Adaptive and controllable compliant systems with embedded actuators and sensors
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We present a framework for the design of a compliant system; i.e. the concurrent design of a compliant mechanism with embedded actuators and embedded sensors. Our methods simultaneously synthesize optimal structural topology and placement of actuators and sensors for maximum energy efficiency and adaptive performance, while satisfying various weight and performance constraints. The goal of this research is to lay an algorithmic framework for distributed actuation and sensing within a compliant active structure. Key features of the methodology include (1) the simultaneous optimization of the location, orientation, and size of actuators concurrent with the compliant transmission topology and (2) the concepts of controllability and observability that arise from the consideration of control, and their implementation in compliant systems design. The methods used include genetic algorithms, graph searches for connectivity, and multiple load cases implemented with linear finite element analysis. Actuators, modeled as both force generators and structural compliant elements, are included as topology variables in the optimization. Results are provided for several studies, including: (1) concurrent actuator placement and topology design for a compliant amplifier and (2) a shape-morphing aircraft wing demonstration with three controlled output nodes. Central to this method is the concept of structural orthogonality, which refers to the unique system response for each actuator it contains. Finally, the results from the controllability problem are used to motivate and describe the analogous extension to observability for sensing.
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Brian Trease, Brian Trease, Sridhar Kota, Sridhar Kota, } "Adaptive and controllable compliant systems with embedded actuators and sensors", Proc. SPIE 6525, Active and Passive Smart Structures and Integrated Systems 2007, 65251R (27 April 2007); doi: 10.1117/12.715919; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.715919

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