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9 April 2007 Domain wall pinning by point defects in ferroelectric materials
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A continuum model for ferroelectric materials is presented where the spontaneous polarization is treated as an order parameter. The classic electric enthalpy consisting of elastic, dielectric and ferroelectric terms is extended by a phase separating potential and an interface energy which yields a phase field potential. The coupled material equations and the Ginzburg-Landau type evolution equation are derived from that phase field potential. The evolution equation as well as the mechanical and electro-static balance laws are solved using the Finite Element Method. The model is extended to allow for the simulation of point defects. Numerical examples are given for the defect-free case, and the influence of point defects is investigated.
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D. Schrade, R. Mueller, B. X. Xu, and D. Gross "Domain wall pinning by point defects in ferroelectric materials", Proc. SPIE 6526, Behavior and Mechanics of Multifunctional and Composite Materials 2007, 65260B (9 April 2007);

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