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11 April 2007 Bio-inspired flapping actuators based on ferromagnetic shape memory alloy composite and hybrid mechanism
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Bio-inspired actuation, such as flapping of flying insect, has been an attracted research subject because of their superior maneuverability at low Mach number flight. Flapping mechanism of biological flying insects and birds have been identified as the promising ones for future micro- or nano- air vehicles (MAV or NAV) for stealth surveillance applications. The kinematics of flapping wings is very complicated, including flapping and rotating. One promising thorax actuator design to mimic motions of flapping wings is based on ferromagnetic shape memory alloy (FSMA) composite which is made of superelastic SMA and soft iron. FSMA composite has been proved as a promising actuator material for fast responsive and robust actuators based on hybrid mechanism. We designed a prototype thorax actuator based on the FSMA composite and hybrid mechanism concept. Our preliminary tests show that the NiTi/polymer composite wing swings back and forth with 60 degree at 22Hz which is close to its resonance frequency. Toward the end of each flapping cycle, the wing also rotates due to the inertia force as passive rotation. The flapping angle is so large that a high stress is induced on the NiTi wing frame near the fixture therefore a stress-induced martensite transformation (SIM) occurs with large elastic strain. Because of this superelastic property of NiTi, the wing frame will spring back.
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Yuanchang Liang, D.-T. Chung, and Minoru Taya "Bio-inspired flapping actuators based on ferromagnetic shape memory alloy composite and hybrid mechanism", Proc. SPIE 6527, Industrial and Commercial Applications of Smart Structures Technologies 2007, 65270R (11 April 2007);


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