10 April 2007 Effect of cyclic electric fields on crack growth in a moderately soft piezoelectric ceramic
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Pre-existing cracks, introduced by a Vickers diamond hardness indenter in BM500 (Navy Type II) PZT, exhibit visible growth and thickening when subjected to low frequency electric fields with amplitudes above a threshold on the order of 1.66 Ec. Thickening, but no growth, of cracks is also observed after cycles of a field of 1.64 Ec. The threshold field is related to the ferroelectric, piezoelectric and elastic properties of the ceramic. At fields above the threshold, cracks grow to a limiting size after a relatively low number of cycles, and then increase in width, as opposed to length, when further electric cycles are applied. The maximum size to which field-induced cracks grow is of the order of the separation of the electrodes. Changes observed in the resonance peaks of impedance spectra may be used as a basis for non-destructive identification of defects in piezoelectrics.
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S. H. Ferguson, S. H. Ferguson, H. W. King, H. W. King, N. Mrad, N. Mrad, D. F. Waechter, D. F. Waechter, B. Yan, B. Yan, R. Blacow, R. Blacow, S. E. Prasad, S. E. Prasad, } "Effect of cyclic electric fields on crack growth in a moderately soft piezoelectric ceramic", Proc. SPIE 6529, Sensors and Smart Structures Technologies for Civil, Mechanical, and Aerospace Systems 2007, 652928 (10 April 2007); doi: 10.1117/12.716885; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.716885

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