12 April 2007 An efficient indexing scheme for binary feature based biometric database
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Abstract
The paper proposes an efficient indexing scheme for binary feature template using B+ tree. In this scheme the input image is decomposed into approximation, vertical, horizontal and diagonal coefficients using the discrete wavelet transform. The binarized approximation coefficient at second level is divided into four quadrants of equal size and Hamming distance (HD) for each quadrant with respect to sample template of all ones is measured. This HD value of each quadrant is used to generate upper and lower range values which are inserted into B+ tree. The nodes of tree at first level contain the lower and upper range values generated from HD of first quadrant. Similarly, lower and upper range values for the three quadrants are stored in the second, third and fourth level respectively. Finally leaf node contains the set of identifiers. At the time of identification, the test image is used to generate HD for four quadrants. Then the B+ tree is traversed based on the value of HD at every node and terminates to leaf nodes with set of identifiers. The feature vector for each identifier is retrieved from the particular bin of secondary memory and matched with test feature template to get top matches. The proposed scheme is implemented on ear biometric database collected at IIT Kanpur. The system is giving an overall accuracy of 95.8% at penetration rate of 34%.
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P. Gupta, P. Gupta, A. Sana, A. Sana, H. Mehrotra, H. Mehrotra, C. Jinshong Hwang, C. Jinshong Hwang, } "An efficient indexing scheme for binary feature based biometric database", Proc. SPIE 6539, Biometric Technology for Human Identification IV, 653909 (12 April 2007); doi: 10.1117/12.719237; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.719237
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