12 April 2007 An eye model for uncalibrated eye gaze estimation under variable head pose
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Gaze estimation is an important component of computer vision systems that monitor human activity for surveillance, human-computer interaction, and various other applications including iris recognition. Gaze estimation methods are particularly valuable when they are non-intrusive, do not require calibration, and generalize well across users. This paper presents a novel eye model that is employed for efficiently performing uncalibrated eye gaze estimation. The proposed eye model was constructed from a geometric simplification of the eye and anthropometric data about eye feature sizes in order to circumvent the requirement of calibration procedures for each individual user. The positions of the two eye corners and the midpupil, the distance between the two eye corners, and the radius of the eye sphere are required for gaze angle calculation. The locations of the eye corners and midpupil are estimated via processing following eye detection, and the remaining parameters are obtained from anthropometric data. This eye model is easily extended to estimating eye gaze under variable head pose. The eye model was tested on still images of subjects at frontal pose (0o) and side pose (34o). An upper bound of the model's performance was obtained by manually selecting the eye feature locations. The resulting average absolute error was 2.98o for frontal pose and 2.87o for side pose. The error was consistent across subjects, which indicates that good generalization was obtained. This level of performance compares well with other gaze estimation systems that utilize a calibration procedure to measure eye features.
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Justin Hnatow, Justin Hnatow, Andreas Savakis, Andreas Savakis, "An eye model for uncalibrated eye gaze estimation under variable head pose", Proc. SPIE 6539, Biometric Technology for Human Identification IV, 65390Q (12 April 2007); doi: 10.1117/12.720834; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.720834


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