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7 May 2007 Investigation of the detection of shallow tunnels using electromagnetic and seismic waves
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Multimodal detection of subsurface targets such as tunnels, pipes, reinforcement bars, and structures has been investigated using both ground-penetrating radar (GPR) and seismic sensors with signal processing techniques to enhance localization capabilities. Both systems have been tested in bi-static configurations but the GPR has been expanded to a multi-static configuration for improved performance. The use of two compatible sensors that sense different phenomena (GPR detects changes in electrical properties while the seismic system measures mechanical properties) increases the overall system's effectiveness in a wider range of soils and conditions. Two experimental scenarios have been investigated in a laboratory model with nearly homogeneous sand. Images formed from the raw data have been enhanced using beamforming inversion techniques and Hough Transform techniques to specifically address the detection of linear targets. The processed data clearly indicate the locations of the buried targets of various sizes at a range of depths.
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Tegan Counts, Gregg Larson, Ali Cafer Gürbüz, James H. McClellan, and Waymond R. Scott Jr. "Investigation of the detection of shallow tunnels using electromagnetic and seismic waves", Proc. SPIE 6553, Detection and Remediation Technologies for Mines and Minelike Targets XII, 65531G (7 May 2007);

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