1 May 2007 Combined 3-D auditory-visual cueing for a visual target acquisition task
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Previous studies have shown that helmet-mounted displays (HMDs) are advantageous in maintaining situation awareness and increasing the amount of time pilots spend looking off-boresight (Geiselman & Osgood, 1994; Geiselman & Osgood, 1995). However, space is also limited on a HMD and any symbology that is presented takes up valuable space and can occlude a pilot's vision. There has been much research in the area of visual cueing and visual search as they relate to seeking out visual targets in the sky. However, the idea of localized auditory cueing, as it could apply in the realm of air-to-air targeting, is an area less studied. One question is how can we present information such that a pilot's attention will be directed to the object of interest the most quickly? Some different types of target location cueing symbology have been studied to find such aspects of symbology that will aid a pilot most in acquiring a target. The purpose of this study is to determine the best method of cueing a person to visual targets in the shortest amount of time possible using auditory and visual cues in combination. Specifically, participants were presented with different combinations of reflected line cues, standard line cues, and localized auditory cues for primary and secondary targets. The cues were presented using an HMD and 3-D auditory headphones, with a magnetic head tracker used to determine when the participant had visually acquired the targets. The possible benefits of these cues based on the times to acquire are discussed.
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Rachael L. Westergren, Rachael L. Westergren, Paul R. Havig, Paul R. Havig, Eric L. Heft, Eric L. Heft, } "Combined 3-D auditory-visual cueing for a visual target acquisition task", Proc. SPIE 6557, Head- and Helmet-Mounted Displays XII: Design and Applications, 65570E (1 May 2007); doi: 10.1117/12.720924; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.720924

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