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15 May 2007 Fiber-coupled NbN superconducting single-photon detectors for quantum correlation measurements
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Abstract
We have fabricated fiber-coupled superconducting single-photon detectors (SSPDs), designed for quantum-correlationtype experiments. The SSPDs are nanostructured (~100-nm wide and 4-nm thick) NbN superconducting meandering stripes, operated in the 2 to 4.2 K temperature range, and known for ultrafast and efficient detection of visible to nearinfrared photons with almost negligible dark counts. Our latest devices are pigtailed structures with coupling between the SSPD structure and a single-mode optical fiber achieved using a micromechanical photoresist ring placed directly over the meander. The above arrangement withstands repetitive thermal cycling between liquid helium and room temperature, and we can reach the coupling efficiency of up to ~33%. The system quantum efficiency, measured as the ratio of the photons counted by SSPD to the total number of photons coupled into the fiber, in our early devices was found to be around 0.3 % and 1% for 1.55 &mgr;m and 0.9 &mgr;m photon wavelengths, respectively. The photon counting rate exceeded 250 MHz. The receiver with two SSPDs, each individually biased, was placed inside a transport, 60-liter liquid helium Dewar, assuring uninterrupted operation for over 2 months. Since the receiver's optical and electrical connections are at room temperature, the set-up is suitable for any applications, where single-photon counting capability and fast count rates are desired. In our case, it was implemented for photon correlation experiments. The receiver response time, measured as a second-order photon cross-correlation function, was found to be below 400 ps, with timing jitter of less than 40 ps.
© (2007) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.
W. Slysz, M. Wegrzecki, J. Bar, P. Grabiec, M. Gorska, E. Rieger, P. Dorenbos, V. Zwiller, I. Milostnaya, O. Minaeva, A. Antipov, O. Okunev, A. Korneev, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, N. Kaurova, G. N. Gol'tsman, J. Kitaygorsky, D. Pan, A. Pearlman, A. Cross, I. Komissarov, and Roman Sobolewski "Fiber-coupled NbN superconducting single-photon detectors for quantum correlation measurements", Proc. SPIE 6583, Photon Counting Applications, Quantum Optics, and Quantum Cryptography, 65830J (15 May 2007); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.723729
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