16 May 2007 3D nanomanufacturing with femtosecond lasers and applications
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One of the rapidly advancing femtosecond laser technologies is three-dimensional micro- and nanostructuring by two-photon polymerization (2PP) technique. This technique allows the fabrication of any computer-generated 3D structure by direct laser "recording" into the volume of a photosensitive material. Because of the threshold behavior and nonlinear nature of the 2PP process, a resolution beyond the diffraction limit can be realized by controlling the laser pulse energy and number of applied pulses. Many different applications of 2PP technique are discussed.
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Sven Passinger, Sven Passinger, Roman Kiyan, Roman Kiyan, Alexandr Ovsianikov, Alexandr Ovsianikov, Carsten Reinhardt, Carsten Reinhardt, Boris Chichkov, Boris Chichkov, } "3D nanomanufacturing with femtosecond lasers and applications", Proc. SPIE 6591, Nanotechnology III, 659104 (16 May 2007); doi: 10.1117/12.721714; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.721714

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