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14 May 2007 Fundamental limit of ebeam lithography
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Proceedings Volume 6607, Photomask and Next-Generation Lithography Mask Technology XIV; 660724 (2007) https://doi.org/10.1117/12.728987
Event: Photomask and Next-Generation Lithography Mask Technology XIV, 2007, Yokohama, Japan
Abstract
Particle beams with collimated discrete charged carriers such as electrons have been employed to lithographically transfer design patterns onto the photoresist for fabrication of devices, such as photomasks. In this paper, we use a single standard deviation σ of total blur based on Gaussian convolution kernel to address the limit of ebeam lithography, where the total blur is constituted of several mechanisms, including space charge effect within the ebeam, shot noise, resist diffusion, and photoacid fluctuation, etc. Based on the Gaussian blur imaging formalism including both electron forward scattering and backward scattering, we derive a fundamental principle based analysis to address the patterning resolution limit, local pattern density (LPD) dependent critical dimension (CD) proximity bias, CD non-linearity, image edge-slope, 2D corner pull back and 2D touch corner structures. Assuming a minimum normalized image log slope of NILS >= 1 across all LPD is required for high volume manufacturability, the requirement of maximum total blur can be derived as σ≤CD/2.4 for a given exposed feature size targeted to pattern. The objective of this paper is to establish a predictive model with simplicity for fundamental limit of ebeam lithography, and accordingly to define the requirement of blur reduction for meeting technology roadmap spec. The key emphasis of this paper is to highlight that mask patterning capability is becoming resolution limited with equipment and material available today. This is an inflection point! An integrated plan for total blur reduction is urgently needed for ebeam lithography to continue enabling technologies moving beyond 45nm and 32nm nodes.
© (2007) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.
Wen-Hao Cheng and Jeff Farnsworth "Fundamental limit of ebeam lithography", Proc. SPIE 6607, Photomask and Next-Generation Lithography Mask Technology XIV, 660724 (14 May 2007); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.728987
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