12 July 2007 Cerebral oxygenation monitoring during cardiac bypass surgery in infants with broad band spatially resolved spectroscopy
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Neurological impairments following cardio-pulmonary bypass (CPB) during open heart surgery can result from microembolism and ischaemia. Here we present results from monitoring cerebral haemodynamics during CPB with near infrared spatially resolved broadband spectroscopy. In particular, the study has the objective (a) to monitor oxy- and deoxy-hemoglobin concentrations (oxy-Hb, deoxy-Hb) and their changes as well as oxygen saturation during CPB surgery and (b) to develop and test algorithms for the calculation of these parameters from broad band spectroscopy. For this purpose a detection system was developed based on an especially designed lens imaging spectrograph with optimised sensitivity of recorded reflectance spectra for wavelengths between 600 and 1000 nm. The high f/#-number of 1:1.2 of the system results in about a factor of 10 higher light throughput combined with a lower astigmatism and crosstalk between channels when compared with a commercial mirror spectrometers (f/# = 1:4). For both hemispheres two independent channels each with three source-detector distances (&rgr; = 25 . 35 mm) were used resulting in six spectra. The broad band approach allows to investigate the influence of the wavelength range on the calculated haemoglobin concentrations and their changes and oxygen saturation when the attenuation A(&lgr;) and its slope &Dgr;A(&lgr;)/&Dgr;&rgr; are evaluated. Furthermore, the different depth sensitivities of these measurement parameters are estimated from Monte Carlo simulations and exploited for an optimization of the cerebral signals. It is demonstrated that the system does record cerebral oxygenation parameters during CPB in infants. In particular, the correlation of haemoglobin concentrations with blood supply (flow, pressure) by the heart-lung machine and the significant decreases in oxygen saturation during cardiac arrest is discussed.
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Jan Soschinski, Jan Soschinski, Lofti Ben Mine, Lofti Ben Mine, Dmitri Geraskin, Dmitri Geraskin, Gerardus Bennink, Gerardus Bennink, Matthias Kohl-Bareis, Matthias Kohl-Bareis, } "Cerebral oxygenation monitoring during cardiac bypass surgery in infants with broad band spatially resolved spectroscopy", Proc. SPIE 6629, Diffuse Optical Imaging of Tissue, 66290U (12 July 2007); doi: 10.1117/12.727785; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.727785

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