An upcoming problem in Europe is the protection of water resources and control of water quality. Coastal areas, rivers,
ground water, wetlands, and especially drinking water require permanent monitoring to avoid pollution by small organic
molecules or especially endocrine disrupting compounds. Biosensors have demonstrated the proof-of-principle of immunochemistry
for these applications. It turns out that especially optical methods based on fluorescence detection can be
successfully used for the development of fast, sensitive, cost-effective, and easy-to-use analytical systems meeting the
requirements given by European Community Directives and national legislation. Results obtained with the RIANA and
AWACSS systems are discussed here.