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13 July 2007 Photoinduced electron transfer (PET)-probes for the study of enzyme activity at the ensemble and single molecule level
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Abstract
Fluorescence based enzyme analysis is commonly done by FRET-probes, natural enzyme substrates flanked by two corresponding fluorophores, showing spectral changes upon distance variations between the fluorophores. However, the use of double labeled substrates displays several limitations such as reduction of sensitivity and high background signal accompanied by high costs for synthesis. Therefore, the development of new probes avoiding these factors is of general interest in enzyme research. A promising approach represents smart probes, i.e. singly labeled quenched enzyme substrates that increase fluorescence intensity upon enzymatic cleavage. Smart probes use the fact that certain rhodamine and oxazine dyes are selectively quenched upon contact formation with guanine or tryptophan residues via photoinduced electron transfer (PET). The rapid response time of the probes enables real-time monitoring of enzyme activity in ensemble as well as in single molecule measurements, which is an important prerequisite for the improved understanding of enzyme mechanisms. We present the design of smart probes for the detection of the two hydrolases, DNaseI and Carboxypeptidase A (CPA) with respect to stability and substrate specificity in ensemble measurements. Furthermore, we investigate the influence of the attached fluorophore on hydrolysis efficiency in case of CPA and demonstrate first applications of smart probes in single enzyme experiments.
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Sigrun Henkenjohann, Sebastian van de Linde, Sören Doose, Philip Tinnefeld, and Markus Sauer "Photoinduced electron transfer (PET)-probes for the study of enzyme activity at the ensemble and single molecule level", Proc. SPIE 6633, Biophotonics 2007: Optics in Life Science, 663323 (13 July 2007); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.728322
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