11 September 2007 Photonic crystal biosensor microplates with integrated fluid networks for high throughput applications in drug discovery
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Assays used in pharmaceutical research require a system that can not only detect biochemical interactions with high sensitivity, but that can also perform many measurements in parallel while consuming low volumes of reagents. While nearly all label-free biosensor transducers to date have been interfaced with a flow channel, the liquid handling system is typically aligned and bonded to the transducer for supplying analytes to only a few sensors in parallel. In this presentation, we describe a fabrication approach for photonic crystal biosensors that utilizes nanoreplica molding to produce a network of sensors that are automatically self-aligned with a microfluidic network in a single process step. The sensor/fluid network is inexpensively produced on large surface areas upon flexible plastic substrates, allowing the device to be incorporated into standard format 96-well microplates. A simple flow scheme using hydrostatic pressure applied through a single control point enables immobilization of capture ligands upon a large number of sensors with 220 nL of reagent, and subsequent exposure of the sensors to test samples. A high resolution imaging detection instrument is capable of monitoring the binding within parallel channels at rates compatible with determining kinetic binding constants between the immobilized ligands and the analytes. The first implementation of this system is capable of monitoring the kinetic interactions of 11 flow channels at once, and a total of 88 channels within an integrated biosensor microplate in rapid succession. The system was initially tested to characterize the interaction between sets of proteins with known binding behavior.
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Charles J. Choi, Charles J. Choi, Leo L. Chan, Leo L. Chan, Maria F. Pineda, Maria F. Pineda, Brian T. Cunningham, Brian T. Cunningham, "Photonic crystal biosensor microplates with integrated fluid networks for high throughput applications in drug discovery", Proc. SPIE 6645, Nanoengineering: Fabrication, Properties, Optics, and Devices IV, 66451H (11 September 2007); doi: 10.1117/12.731324; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.731324

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