12 September 2007 Advances in chip-scale atomic frequency references at NIST
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Coherent population trapping (CPT) resonances usually exhibit contrasts below 10% when interrogated with frequency modulated lasers. We discuss a relatively simple way to increase the resonance contrast to nearly 100% generating an additional light field through a nonlinear four-wave mixing interaction in the atomic vapor.1 A similar method can also be used to create a beat signal at the CPT resonance frequency that can injection-lock a low-power microwave oscillator at 3.4 GHz directly to the atomic resonance.2 This could lead to chip-scale atomic clocks (CSACs) with improved performance. Furthermore, we introduce a miniature microfabricated saturated absorption spectrometer3 that produces a signal for locking a laser frequency to optical transitions in alkali atoms. The Rb absorption spectra are comparable to signals obtained with standard table-top setups, although the rubidium vapor cell has an interior volume of only 1 mm3 and the volume of the entire spectrometer is around 0.1 cm3.
© (2007) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.
S. Knappe, S. Knappe, V. Shah, V. Shah, A. Brannon, A. Brannon, V. Gerginov, V. Gerginov, H. G. Robinson, H. G. Robinson, Z. Popović, Z. Popović, L. Hollberg, L. Hollberg, J. Kitching, J. Kitching, } "Advances in chip-scale atomic frequency references at NIST", Proc. SPIE 6673, Time and Frequency Metrology, 667307 (12 September 2007); doi: 10.1117/12.735024; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.735024

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