11 October 2007 Submerged turbulence detection with optical satellites
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Abstract
During fall periods in 2002, 2003 and 2004 three major oceanographic expeditions were carried out in Mamala Bay, Hawaii. These were part of the RASP Remote Anthropogenic Sensing Program. Ikonos and Quickbird optical satellite images of sea surface glint revealed ≈100 m spectral anomalies in km2 averaging patches in regions leading from the Honolulu Sand Island Municipal Outfall diffuser to distances up to 20 km. To determine the mechanisms behind this phenomenon, the RASP expeditions monitored the waters adjacent to the outfall with an array of hydrographic, optical and turbulence microstructure sensors in anomaly and ambient background regions. Drogue tracks and mean turbulence parameters for 2 × 104 microstructure patches were analyzed to understand complex turbulence, fossil turbulence and zombie turbulence near-vertical internal wave transport processes. The dominant mechanism appears to be generic to stratified natural fluids including planet and star atmospheres and is termed beamed zombie turbulence maser action (BZTMA). Most of the bottom turbulent kinetic energy is converted to ≈ 100 m fossil turbulence waves. These activate secondary (zombie) turbulence in outfall fossil turbulence patches that transmit heat, mass, chemical species, momentum and information vertically to the sea surface for detection in an efficient maser action. The transport is beamed in intermittent mixing chimneys.
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Carl H. Gibson, R. Norris Keeler, Valery G. Bondur, Pak T. Leung, H. Prandke, D. Vithanage, "Submerged turbulence detection with optical satellites", Proc. SPIE 6680, Coastal Ocean Remote Sensing, 66800X (11 October 2007); doi: 10.1117/12.732257; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.732257
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