20 September 2007 Dynamic wavefront control for lightweight mirrors in space telescopes
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Abstract
Future space telescopes require larger apertures to continue to improve performance. However, balancing the large, high performance optics with the desire for lightweight systems proves quite challenging. One way to achieve both goals is to utilize active, on-orbit wavefront control. A promising method of wavefront control implementation is surface-parallel piezo-electric actuation. The primary mirror backplane is ribbed to provide increased stiffness even at very low areal densities, with piezo-electric actuators embedded at the top of each rib. When the piezo-electrics expand or contract, they bend the surface of the mirror and can be used to directly correct for dynamic distortions of the wavefront. In addition, rigid-body petal control can be used to allow for the possibility of systems with segmented primary mirrors. This paper examines the implementation of both the piezoelectric deformable mirror and petal wavefront controllers, along with their implications on both optical performance and stability robustness. The systems analyzed in this paper are integrated models of the entire space telescope system, considering the transmission of disturbances and vibrations from the reaction wheels in the bus through the structure, isolators, and bipods to the aperture. The deformable mirror control is performed using a Linear Quadratic Gaussian (LQG) controller, while the mirror segment control is performed using a positive position feedback (PPF) controller. For all cases, the wavefront error is the primary optical performance metric and is calculated using the Zernikes of the primary mirror. The major deterrents to the use of control are complexity and the loss of stability robustness. The integrated model allows for the calculation of all metrics together to enable the examination of the potential benefits of implementing dynamic wavefront control.
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Lucy E. Cohan, Lucy E. Cohan, David W. Miller, David W. Miller, "Dynamic wavefront control for lightweight mirrors in space telescopes", Proc. SPIE 6687, UV/Optical/IR Space Telescopes: Innovative Technologies and Concepts III, 66870Z (20 September 2007); doi: 10.1117/12.731782; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.731782
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