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21 September 2007 Theory and practical application of out of sequence measurements with results for multi-static tracking
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This paper addresses the out-of-sequence measurement (OOSM) problem associated with multiple platform tracking systems. The problem arises due to different transmission delays in communication of detection reports across platforms. Much of the literature focuses on the improvement to the state estimate by incorporating the OOSM. As the time lag increases, there is diminishing improvement to the state estimate. However, this paper shows that optimal processing of OOSMs may still be beneficial by improving data association as part of a multi-target tracker. This paper derives exact multi-lag algorithms with the property that the standard log likelihood track scoring is independent of the order in which the measurements are processed. The orthogonality principle is applied to generalize the method of Bar- Shalom in deriving the exact A1 algorithm for 1-lag estimation. Theory is also developed for optimal filtering of time averaged measurements and measurements correlated through periodic updates of a target aim-point. An alternative derivation of the multi-lag algorithms is also achieved using an efficient variant of the augmented state Kalman filter (AS-KF). This results in practical and reasonably efficient multi-lag algorithms. Results are compared to a well known ad hoc algorithm for incorporating OOSMs. Finally, the paper presents some simulated multi-target multi-static scenarios where there is a benefit to processing the data out of sequence in order to improve pruning efficiency.
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David R. Iny "Theory and practical application of out of sequence measurements with results for multi-static tracking", Proc. SPIE 6699, Signal and Data Processing of Small Targets 2007, 66990A (21 September 2007);

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