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8 October 2007 Signature-based authentication system using watermarking in the ridgelet and Radon-DCT domain
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In this paper we propose a signature-based biometric system, where watermarking is applied to signature images in order to hide and keep secret some signature features in a static representation of the signature itself. Being a behavioral biometric, signatures are intrinsically different from other commonly used biometric data, possessing dynamic properties which can not be extracted from a single signature image. The marked images can be used for user authentication, letting their static characteristics being analyzed by automatic algorithms or security attendants. When a higher security is needed, the embedded features can be extracted and used, thus realizing a multi-level decision procedure. The proposed watermarking techniques are tailored to images with sharpened edges, just like a signature picture. In order to obtain a robust method, able to hide relevant data while keeping intact the original structure of the host, the mark is embedded as close as possible to the lines that constitute the signature, using the properties of the Radon transform. An extensive set of experimental results, obtained varying the system's parameters and concerning both the mark extraction and the verification performances, show the effectiveness of our approach.
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Emanuele Maiorana, Patrizio Campisi, and Alessandro Neri "Signature-based authentication system using watermarking in the ridgelet and Radon-DCT domain", Proc. SPIE 6741, Optics and Photonics for Counterterrorism and Crime Fighting III, 67410I (8 October 2007);

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