Launched in May 2002, the Aqua MODIS has successfully operated on-orbit for more than five years and continuously
produced many high quality data products that have significantly contributed to studies of the Earth's climate and
environmental changes. The MODIS collects data in 36 spectral bands ranging from the visible (VIS) to the long-wave
infrared (LWIR) spectral region and at three (nadir) spatial resolutions: 250m (2 bands), 500m (5 bands), and 1km (29
bands). Bands 1-19 and 26 are the reflective solar bands (RSB) with wavelengths from 0.41 to 2.2μm and bands 20-25
and 27-36 are the thermal emissive bands (TEB) with wavelengths from 3.7 to 14.4μm. The MODIS on-board
calibrators, noticeably improved over those of its heritage sensors, include a solar diffuser (SD), a solar diffuser stability
monitor (SDSM), a blackbody (BB), a spectro-radiometric calibration assembly (SRCA), and a space view (SV) port.
This paper provides an overview of Aqua MODIS on-orbit operation and calibration activities with emphasis on the
performance of its on-board calibrators. Results discussed in this paper include TEB and RSB detector noise
characterization, short-term stability and long-term response change. The sensor's overall spectral (RSB) and spatial
(RSB and TEB) parameters are also presented in this paper.