29 October 2007 The SAPPHIRE trial: investigations on angular deviation caused by refraction
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The NATO Panel SET-088 TG-51 has the charter to investigate infrared research topics relating to Littoral Ship Self-Defence. The two main research areas for TG-51 are low-altitude maritime IR propagation phenomenology and ship signature properties. Atmospheric scintillation and refraction prediction models were validated in several trials conducted by different NATO groups. So far most trials were conducted in cold waters. In June 2006, TG 51 performed the SAPPHIRE trial (Ship and Atmospheric Propagation PHenomenon InfraRed Experiment) to collect data in littoral areas under conditions of warm sea temperatures. The location of the trial was the US Naval Research Laboratory's Chesapeake Bay Detachment (CBD) field site on Chesapeake Bay. The objectives of the trial were to validate ship signature models and scintillation/refraction models. In the SAPPHIRE trial, the purpose of FGAN-FOM was to investigate the influence of changing weather conditions on the apparent elevation of a target. Therefore, we set up an IR-camera at CBD overlooking Chesapeake Bay observing a set of lights installed on an Island in 16 km distance. In this paper we discuss and analyse the measured elevations and compare them to the propagation model IRBLEM (IR Boundary Layer Effects Model) by DRDC, Canada.
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Karin Stein, Karin Stein, Dirk Seiffer, Dirk Seiffer, } "The SAPPHIRE trial: investigations on angular deviation caused by refraction", Proc. SPIE 6747, Optics in Atmospheric Propagation and Adaptive Systems X, 674705 (29 October 2007); doi: 10.1117/12.753812; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.753812

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