We report the development of a 355-nm lidar system for short-range wind speed measurements, using a fringe-imaging Michelson interferometer as a spectral analyzer. The instrument principle is to deduce the wind speed from the phase variations of the two-wave interference pattern provided by the interferometer. A laboratory demonstrator has been realized, which was designed in an original way to minimize the sensitivity to phase fluctuations caused by thermo-mechanical disturbances and laser drifts. An accurate signal processing has been developed, providing with estimates of five fringe parameters: intensity, contrast, periodicity, angular orientation, and phase. It is implemented in two steps: the first step uses a Fourier transform analysis and the second step a maximum-likelihood estimator. To validate the instrument principle, measurement method and signal processing alltogether, a calibrated speed measurement experiment has been performed on hard target, for which the results are shown.