25 September 2007 Long-wavelength VCSELs for optical networks and trace-gas monitoring
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Long-wavelength InGaAlAs-InP vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (LW-VCSELs), designed for applications in gas sensing and for optical interconnects are presented. These lasers cover the wavelength-range from 1.3 to 2.3 μm. With 2.3 μm, this is the longest wavelength ever achieved with an InP-based interband laser. Fabricated with a novel highspeed design with reduced parasitics, bandwidths in excess of 11 GHz at 1.55 μm have been achieved. To the best of our knowledge, this is the best dynamic characteristic for a 1.55 μm VCSEL ever presented. As a proof-of-concept one- and two-dimensional arrays have been fabricated with high yield. All devices use for current confinement a buried tunnel junction (BTJ). This concept, together with a dielectric backside reflector with integrated electroplated gold heat sink for thermal management enables continuous wave (CW) operation at room-temperature with typical single-mode output powers above 1 mW. The operation voltage is around 1 V and power consumption is as low as 10 - 20 mW. Error-free data-transmission at 10 Gbit/s over 20 km is demonstrated, which can be readily applied in uncooled Coarse Wavelength Division Multiplex Passive Optical Networks (CWDM PONs). The functionality of tunable diode laser spectroscopy (TDLS) systems is verified by presenting a laser hygrometer using a 1.84 μm wavelength VCSEL.
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W. Hofmann, W. Hofmann, G. Böhm, G. Böhm, M. Ortsiefer, M. Ortsiefer, M. Görblich, M. Görblich, C. Lauer, C. Lauer, N. H. Zhu, N. H. Zhu, M.-C. Amann, M.-C. Amann, } "Long-wavelength VCSELs for optical networks and trace-gas monitoring", Proc. SPIE 6766, Optoelectronic Devices: Physics, Fabrication, and Application IV, 67660F (25 September 2007); doi: 10.1117/12.736660; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.736660

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