12 October 2007 Numerical analysis and experimental investigation of highly sensitive photonic crystal fiber long-period grating refractive index sensor
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Abstract
In this paper, we present the numerical analyses of modal coupling properties and resonance spectral response of longperiod gratings (LPGs) in solid-core photonic crystal fibers (PCFs) with respect to their sensitivity to refractive indices of measurands in the air channels using a full-vectoral mode solver combined with frequency-domain method. The calculated results show that the wavelength resonance of a PCF-LPG can be extremely sensitive to the refractive index change. The PCF-LPG refractive index sensors, inscribed by residual stress relaxation using a scanning CO2 laser, are also experimentally investigated in terms of resonance shift with the PCF-LPG structure filled with sodium chloride (NaCl) solutions at concentrations ranging from 0-26% (w/w). The spectral features were greatly improved by inscribing the LPG structure in PCF prefilled with water. The PCF-LPG sensors are shown to be able to detect the change of ~10-7 refractive index unit (RIU) in the index range of 1.33 to 1.35, in a good agreement with the numerical simulation.
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Zonghu He, Yinian Zhu, Jiří Kaňka, Henry Du, "Numerical analysis and experimental investigation of highly sensitive photonic crystal fiber long-period grating refractive index sensor", Proc. SPIE 6767, Photonic Crystals and Photonic Crystal Fibers for Sensing Applications III, 67670E (12 October 2007); doi: 10.1117/12.734568; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.734568
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