For the last 500,000 years, progress of human civilization has been linked to exploration of electromagnetic spectrum.
Photonic devices progressed from torches to candles, from gas lamps to electric bulbs, and finally to visible, infrared,
and UV lasers and light emitting diodes. Electronic devices, such as High Electron Mobility Transistors and
Heterojunction Bipolar Transistors, reached into the sub-terahertz range. The terahertz range (0.3 THz to 30 THz) is in
between the spectral ranges dominated by electronic and photonic device. In this paper, we review applications of
terahertz technology for space exploration and data communications.