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5 January 2008 The application of nonlinear bistable detectors to DCT-domain watermarking schemes
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A DCT-domain watermarking scheme, based on nonlinear bistable detectors, is presented. A binary copyright character, i.e. watermark, is firstly reordered into a binary zig-zag sequence, and then mapped into the pulse amplitude modulated waveforms. Certain desyn-chronization time can be arbitrarily placed into one code of the modulated signal, and will be tolerated due to the robust superiority of nonlinear detectors over matched filters. The watermarking signal is then embedded in a selected set of DCT coeficients of an image in medium frequency domain. The selected set of DCT coeffcients is shuffled by Arnold transform and looks more like background noise for the watermark signal. The copyright character can be extracted by the nonlinear bistable detector without resorting to the original image, i.e. blind watermark detection. Interestingly, more higher similarity between the original character and the extracted one can be further achieved by a parallel array of bistable detectors via the mechanism of array stochastic resonance. Efficacy of the proposed watermarking scheme is proved on some common attacks in experiments.
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Fabing Duan and Derek Abbott "The application of nonlinear bistable detectors to DCT-domain watermarking schemes", Proc. SPIE 6802, Complex Systems II, 680215 (5 January 2008);

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