10 March 2008 3D reconstruction and spatial auralization of the Painted Dolmen of Antelas
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Abstract
This paper presents preliminary results on the development of a 3D audiovisual model of the Anta Pintada (painted dolmen) of Antelas, a Neolithic chamber tomb located in Oliveira de Frades and listed as Portuguese national monument. The final aim of the project is to create a highly accurate Virtual Reality (VR) model of this unique archaeological site, capable of providing not only visual but also acoustic immersion based on its actual geometry and physical properties. The project started in May 2006 with in situ data acquisition. The 3D geometry of the chamber was captured using a Laser Range Finder. In order to combine the different scans into a complete 3D visual model, reconstruction software based on the Iterative Closest Point (ICP) algorithm was developed using the Visualization Toolkit (VTK). This software computes the boundaries of the room on a 3D uniform grid and populates its interior with "free-space nodes", through an iterative algorithm operating like a torchlight illuminating a dark room. The envelope of the resulting set of "free-space nodes" is used to generate a 3D iso-surface approximating the interior shape of the chamber. Each polygon of this surface is then assigned the acoustic absorption coefficient of the corresponding boundary material. A 3D audiovisual model operating in real-time was developed for a VR Environment comprising head-mounted display (HMD) I-glasses SVGAPro, an orientation sensor (tracker) InterTrax 2 with 3 Degrees Of Freedom (3DOF) and stereo headphones. The auralisation software is based on a geometric model. This constitutes a first approach, since geometric acoustics have well-known limitations in rooms with irregular surfaces. The immediate advantage lies in their inherent computational efficiency, which allows real-time operation. The program computes the early reflections forming the initial part of the chamber's impulse response (IR), which carry the most significant cues for source localisation. These early reflections are processed through Head Related Transfer Functions (HRTF) updated in real-time according to the orientation of the user's head, so that sound waves appear to come from the correct location in space, in agreement with the visual scene. The late-reverberation tail of the IR is generated by an algorithm designed to match the reverberation time of the chamber, calculated from the actual acoustic absorption coefficients of its surfaces. The sound output to the headphones is obtained by convolving the IR with anechoic recordings of the virtual audio source.
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Paulo Dias, Paulo Dias, Guilherme Campos, Guilherme Campos, Vítor Santos, Vítor Santos, Ricardo Casaleiro, Ricardo Casaleiro, Ricardo Seco, Ricardo Seco, Beatriz Sousa Santos, Beatriz Sousa Santos, } "3D reconstruction and spatial auralization of the Painted Dolmen of Antelas", Proc. SPIE 6805, Three-Dimensional Image Capture and Applications 2008, 68050Y (10 March 2008); doi: 10.1117/12.766607; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.766607
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