28 January 2008 Enriching text with images and colored light
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We present an unsupervised method to enrich textual applications with relevant images and colors. The images are collected by querying large image repositories and subsequently the colors are computed using image processing. A prototype system based on this method is presented where the method is applied to song lyrics. In combination with a lyrics synchronization algorithm the system produces a rich multimedia experience. In order to identify terms within the text that may be associated with images and colors, we select noun phrases using a part of speech tagger. Large image repositories are queried with these terms. Per term representative colors are extracted using the collected images. Hereto, we either use a histogram-based or a mean shift-based algorithm. The representative color extraction uses the non-uniform distribution of the colors found in the large repositories. The images that are ranked best by the search engine are displayed on a screen, while the extracted representative colors are rendered on controllable lighting devices in the living room. We evaluate our method by comparing the computed colors to standard color representations of a set of English color terms. A second evaluation focuses on the distance in color between a queried term in English and its translation in a foreign language. Based on results from three sets of terms, a measure of suitability of a term for color extraction based on KL Divergence is proposed. Finally, we compare the performance of the algorithm using either the automatically indexed repository of Google Images and the manually annotated Flickr.com. Based on the results of these experiments, we conclude that using the presented method we can compute the relevant color for a term using a large image repository and image processing.
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Dragan Sekulovski, Dragan Sekulovski, Gijs Geleijnse, Gijs Geleijnse, Bram Kater, Bram Kater, Jan Korst, Jan Korst, Steffen Pauws, Steffen Pauws, Ramon Clout, Ramon Clout, } "Enriching text with images and colored light", Proc. SPIE 6820, Multimedia Content Access: Algorithms and Systems II, 682004 (28 January 2008); doi: 10.1117/12.766421; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.766421

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