19 December 1986 Recent Developments In Sapphire Growth By Heat Exchanger Method (HEM)
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Large diameter, sapphire crystals are grown using the heat exchanger method (HEM). In order to address current applications of sapphire 30 kg, 25 cm diameter boules have been put into production. The feasibility of growth of (0001) orientation boules has been demonstrated. This allows for larger sapphire components for zero birefringence optics applications. The HEM has been adapted as an "investment casting" technique for growing complicated sapphire components directly from the melt.
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C. P. Khattak, C. P. Khattak, A. N. Scoville, A. N. Scoville, F. Schmid, F. Schmid, } "Recent Developments In Sapphire Growth By Heat Exchanger Method (HEM)", Proc. SPIE 0683, Infrared and Optical Transmitting Materials, (19 December 1986); doi: 10.1117/12.936413; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.936413

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