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20 February 2008 Characterization of neutral density filters for use in near infrared lasers
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Neutral density (ND) filters are frequently used to vary radiant energy and irradiance in laser-tissue interactions. In the process of preparing an optical train for exposure of tissue to near infrared laser exposure, the absorbance of various ND filters was examined. ND filters were characterized for transmittance between 500 and 2000 nanometers using a CARY-500 spectrophotometer. By characterizing the optical transmittance of the ND filters we were able to accurately predict their effect on the near infrared laser beam. The ND filters were also characterized before and after laser exposure to see if any laser-induced changes in optical density occurred.
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Ed Rickers, Kenneth J. Walter, and Thomas E. Johnson "Characterization of neutral density filters for use in near infrared lasers", Proc. SPIE 6854, Optical Interactions with Tissue and Cells XIX, 68541H (20 February 2008);

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