15 February 2008 Shot noise limited heterodyne detection of CARS signals
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We demonstrate heterodyne detection of CARS signals using a cascaded phase-preserving chain to generate the CARS input wavelengths and a coherent local oscillator. The heterodyne amplification by the local oscillator reveals a window for shot noise limited detection before the signal-to-noise is limited by amplitude fluctuations. We demonstrate an improvement in sensitivity by more than 3 orders of magnitude for detection using a photodiode. This will enable CARS microscopy to reveal concentrations below the current mMolar range.
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M. Jurna, M. Jurna, E. Büttner, E. Büttner, J. P. Korterik, J. P. Korterik, C. Otto, C. Otto, I. Rimke, I. Rimke, H. L. Offerhaus, H. L. Offerhaus, } "Shot noise limited heterodyne detection of CARS signals", Proc. SPIE 6860, Multiphoton Microscopy in the Biomedical Sciences VIII, 68600R (15 February 2008); doi: 10.1117/12.761641; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.761641

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