20 February 2008 Axial field engineering in the nonparaxial domain
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The design of axially super-resolving phase pupil filters based on the scalar theory of diffraction is limited to low numerical aperture (NA) focusing. To account for the non-paraxiality encountered in high-NA optical systems, we propose a design procedure based on the method of generalized projections that incorporates the electromagnetic theory of diffraction. A solution is identified that narrows the axial intensity of the central lobe by 29% while maintaining the side lobe intensity below 52% of the peak intensity. It is found that solutions obtained with this method depend strongly on the applied constraints and the starting pupil filter.
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Toufic G. Jabbour, Stephen M. Kuebler, "Axial field engineering in the nonparaxial domain", Proc. SPIE 6861, Three-Dimensional and Multidimensional Microscopy: Image Acquisition and Processing XV, 68610P (20 February 2008); doi: 10.1117/12.761977; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.761977

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