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22 February 2008 Laser alloying and cladding of glass-ceramic surfaces using nano-scaled metal-oxide powders
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Laser supported processes can be used to modify the properties of ceramic substrates locally. These processes are characterised by a strong thermal interaction between the laser beam and the ceramic surface which leads to localised melting. During the dynamic melting process second phase particles are introduced into the melt pool in order to modify the physical properties. LTCC (Low Temperature Co-fired Ceramics)-substrates were laser alloyed and coated by laser cladding using nanoscaled powders of WO3 and CuO. Depending on the process parameters and the powders used modified areas with different geometries could be fabricated with a complex multiphase microstructure. Particle agglomerates, small crystals as well as grains covered with reaction phase could be found inside the microstructure, in parts with typical length scales in the submicron range. The properties of the laser modified tracks differ significantly from that of the substrate. In particular the thermal and electrical properties were changed. An enhanced thermal conductivity could be detected in laser tracks alloyed with the nano-scaled CuO- and WO3-powders. The electrical resistivity showed a semiconducting behaviour with a negative temperature coefficient, i.e. it decreases with increasing temperature.
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Magnus Rohde, Sabine Schreck, and Sophia Sachse "Laser alloying and cladding of glass-ceramic surfaces using nano-scaled metal-oxide powders", Proc. SPIE 6880, Laser-based Micro- and Nanopackaging and Assembly II, 688004 (22 February 2008);

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