25 March 2008 The solid state x-ray image intensifier (SSXII): an EMCCD-based x-ray detector
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Abstract
The solid-state x-ray image intensifier (SSXII) is an EMCCD-based x-ray detector designed to satisfy an increasing need for high-resolution real-time images, while offering significant improvements over current flat panel detectors (FPDs) and x-ray image intensifiers (XIIs). FPDs are replacing XIIs because they reduce/eliminate veiling glare, pincushion or s-shaped distortions and are physically flat. However, FPDs suffer from excessive lag and ghosting and their performance has been disappointing for low-exposure-per-frame procedures due to excessive instrumentation-noise. XIIs and FPDs both have limited resolution capabilities of ~3 cycles/mm. To overcome these limitations a prototype SSXII module has been developed, consisting of a 1k x 1k, 8 μm pixel EMCCD with a fiber-optic input window, which views a 350 μm thick CsI(Tl) phosphor via a 4:1 magnifying fiber-optic-taper (FOT). Arrays of such modules will provide a larger field-of- view. Detector MTF, DQE, and instrumentation-noise equivalent exposure (INEE) were measured to evaluate the SSXIIs performance using a standard x-ray spectrum (IEC RQA5), allowing for comparison with current state-of-the-art detectors. The MTF was 0.20 at 3 cycles/mm, comparable to standard detectors, and better than 0.05 up to 7 cycles/mm, well beyond current capabilities. DQE curves indicate no degradation from high-angiographic to low-fluoroscopic exposures (< 2% deviation in overall DQE from 1.3 mR to 2.7 μR), demonstrating negligible instrumentation-noise, even with low input signal intensities. An INEE of < 0.2 μR was measured for the highest-resolution mode (32 μm effective pixel size). Comparison images between detector technologies qualitatively demonstrate these improved imaging capabilities provided by the SSXII.
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Andrew Kuhls-Gilcrist, Andrew Kuhls-Gilcrist, Girijesh Yadava, Girijesh Yadava, Vikas Patel, Vikas Patel, Amit Jain, Amit Jain, Daniel R. Bednarek, Daniel R. Bednarek, Stephen Rudin, Stephen Rudin, } "The solid state x-ray image intensifier (SSXII): an EMCCD-based x-ray detector", Proc. SPIE 6913, Medical Imaging 2008: Physics of Medical Imaging, 69130K (25 March 2008); doi: 10.1117/12.772724; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.772724
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